a biblical theology of the book of Revelation

The book of Revelation has been studied by all generations of Christians with various interpretations of the book.  Often the studies have focused solely upon its Apocalyptic nature, seeking to interpret the prophetic messages of the book.  Yet Revelation has a vast theological message that has been largely ignored.

Within a three part series and two guest bloggers we will attempt to trace the theological themes of the book of Revelation through the lenses of

1) the glory of God,

2) suffering and victory, and

3) redemption.

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Theology of Redemption from the book of Revelation

This article was written by my friend Jeremy Oliver. Jeremy is an Assistant Pastor at Battle Ground Bible Church since August 2011. Previously he taught Bible and ran the Spiritual Life at a Christian academy in Phoenix, Arizona, where he also served in the biblical counseling program and led a small group at Harvest Bible Chapel North Phoenix. After earning a BA in History from Indiana University and a Master of Arts in Liberal Studies concentrated in History from Valparaiso University, he completed a Masters of Divinity from Faith Bible Seminary in 2010. He and his wife, Jen, have been happily married since November 2006. They have a beautiful boy named, Charlie.

One of the great questions that loom in the mind of individuals is, “How can a loving and all-powerful God allow evil in the world?”  If God is so concerned for humanity and even died to redeem it, how is it that evil exists in the world?  Grant Osborne notes that Revelation serves as a theodicy of God, continuing in the line other biblical literature which “refers to the justification of God in two directions: the seeming triumph of the wicked and the suffering of the innocent.”[1]  Revelation continues in this tradition, prophesying of the culminating redemption of creation and the defeat of evil.  It is in this horrid picture of judgment upon the world that ultimate redemption is found for those who hold fast to the redemptive work of Jesus Christ.  In the final vision (Revelation 21:9-22:9) God has defeated the forces of evil and His redemptive work is completed.  It is in the context of Revelation that the answer to the problem of evil is finally answered and God responds to so many who have echoed the cry of those slain on behalf of God, “O Sovereign Lord, holy and true, how long before you will judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?” (Revelation 6:10). In this section, the theme of redemption will be traced through the book of Revelation.

In the prologue of this book, John admonishes the reader to hold fast to Christ because the events flowing out of these visions are imminent and the consummation of redemption is ‘near’.   Beale notes, “The main goal of the argument of John’s Revelation is to exhort God’s people to remain faithful to the calling of following the Lamb’s paradoxical example and not to compromise, in order that they may inherit final salvation.”[2]  Following this admonition is John’s vision of the risen Christ as he views the church in the world.  This vision contains seven letters to contemporary churches of John’s day from Jesus (1:5), who has provided redemption “from our sins by his blood and made us a kingdom of priests to his God and Father” (1:5).

After the initial greeting to these churches, Jesus observes their activities, bringing attention to their strengths and weaknesses.  Yet within these letters there are promises of final redemption for those who repent and hold fast to Jesus Christ (2:7, 11, 17, 28; 3:5, 11-12, 21).  Repentance is crucial to the people of God in Revelation and it is stubborn refusal to repent that precedes the judgments of God.  Osborne notes, “It is clear that the judgments of the trumpets and bowls are not just the over-reaction of a vindictive God who wreaks vengeance on all his enemies but a last call to repentance while there is still time.”[3]  Jesus is calling them to repent and stand, which in turn is setting the stage for what one should stand firm for, namely, the consummation of redemption at the end of human history as we know it.  The return of Christ is certain and imminent; they will be affected by it, whether it occurs in their lifetime or in the distant future.

Upon the close of these seven letters John is brought to heaven for a vision of the coming judgment (4:1-11:19).  In transition to the impending judgment by God comes a glorious scene of the risen Jesus Christ as one who is worthy to bring that judgment (5:3-5).  In Christ’s death and resurrection, he is the redeemer who alone is worthy to judge the sinfulness that has permeated the world.  Beale notes, “God and Christ are glorified because Christ’s resurrection demonstrates that they are sovereign over creation to judge and to redeem.”[4]

Chapters 4 and 5 are central to the book of Revelation as they show the sovereign hand of the God, the only one worthy to bring both judgment upon sin and the fulfillment of redemption.  What a horrible scene of mass destruction; yet God is worthy in his holiness to bring such judgment.  In his holiness he is praised by those who follow him because they know that such destruction is part of his plan of redemption for those who follow him.  The second vision ends with this sobering reminder of this contrast of judgment and reward, all at the hand of God,

“We give thanks to you, Lord God Almighty, who is and who was, for you have taken your great power and begun to reign. The nations raged, but your wrath came, and the time for the dead to be judged, and for rewarding your servants, the prophets and saints, and those who fear your name, both small and great, and for destroying the destroyers of the earth” (11:17-18, ESV).

The next stage in this progress of redemption is battle between God and Satan.  It is Satan who is ultimately behind this rebellion against God and who battles greatly against God’s people on the earth (12:17), knowing that his time is limited (12:12).  In his battle against God’s people, Satan calls the Beast and the False Prophet to cause men to reject God (13:4, 14) and brutally hunt and massacre the people of God in the world (13:7, 15).  But even in the midst of this ghastly scene, there is hope for those who choose God over this rebellious onslaught (13:7-10).  In this is the hope of that final destruction of evil by God and the consummation of redemption.

In response to this great atrocity God does not idly allow evil to continue unrestrained.  He is patient with humanity, warning them of the coming judgment (14:6-13) before his final and horrific judgments and the millennium in which he will rule upon the earth (15:5-18:24).  Here God continues his process of defeating evil and progressing towards the pinnacle of redemption.  Again God is praised for his just and sovereign dealings with evil and rebellion (19:1-2) and calls his people to himself where they will commune with him, in contrast to the destruction of those who are conquered with the Beast and the Prophet.

After this thousand year reign the ultimate defeat of evil comes as Satan is cast into the Lake of Fire and all those who followed this rebellion with him.  It is here that evil is ultimately defeated and God wholly brings redemption to the world and all those who follow him (21:1-22:5).

The overarching theme of this consummation of redemption is marked by the new heaven and earth (21:1).  There are three specific elements of this redemption that will be examined further: Jerusalem, the Temple, and the people of God.

Jerusalem

Jerusalem is a place of great significance throughout Israel’s history and is, as Isaiah noted, “Yahweh’s holy hill, the place where he lives (4:5; 8:18; 10:12; 12:5-6; 14:32; 24:23; 30:19; 31:9)”.[5]  This city was established under the reign of David as the capital of Israel; it is here in the Tabernacle and eventually in the Temple that Yahweh dwelt.  Sadly, sinful Israel mistook this presence of Yahweh for unconditional protection, which was shattered with the Babylonians in 587 B.C. and the unimaginable scene of the removal of Yahweh’s presence from Jerusalem’s Temple in Ezekiel (8:1-3).  It was because of sin that Jerusalem never attained the status intended for it as the city of the Great King (Psalm 48:2).

Jerusalem, which was intended to be a place of great worship of Yahweh, became a place which “kills the prophets” (Luke 13:33) and would eventually murder the one who came to redeem it, Jesus Christ.  This city lost its status as the dwelling place of God and instead received condemnation from the Savior (Luke 19:41-44).

It is in Revelation 21-22 that Yahweh redeems Jerusalem from its sinful past so that it lives up to its potential as the city of the Great King (Psalm 48:2).  The description that John gives is fantastic, recording a place of immense glory and the dwelling place of the glorious One.

The Temple

The Temple was the center of Jewish worship of Yahweh.  After the Fall of Adam and Eve in the Garden, Yahweh was not able to dwell directly with his people due to their sinfulness and his holiness.  Yet, desiring a relationship with his people he had the Israelites, under the leadership of Moses, construct the Tabernacle as a place of worship in which this was possible.  Even this interaction between God and man did not compare to the harmonious relationship in the Garden, as sacrifices had to be offered continually and the people were removed from direct presence of God in his dwelling place, the Holy of Holies.  Once the permanent settlement of the Temple was constructed, this same basic structure remained in place for Jewish worship.  It was in the holy city of Jerusalem that the Temple was erected and viewed as being protected because it was the dwelling place of God.  However, with the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple in 587 B.C., all of Israel was distraught and confused.  McKelvey notes, “This meant nothing less than the loss of God’s presence (Ezek. 9:3; 10:4-5; 11:23).”[6]  The Temple was restored under the leadership of Ezra and Nehemiah, but this did not last either.

As history progressed, Jesus Christ came upon the scene making Messianic promises of worship that would not take place at the Temple (John 4:21-24).  Jesus would later cleanse the Temple and reject the people who rejected him and, as McKelvey notes,

“The consequences of Jesus’ rejection and death for the Temple of Jerusalem are nowhere more in evidence than in Mark’s statement that at the moment Jesus died the veil of the Temple was torn apart (15:38)…the meaning is not in doubt; the death of Jesus stands for the removal of the Temple of Jerusalem and its replacement by a new means of forgiveness…”[7]

Later in the New Testament Paul would describe the believer as “God’s Temple” (1 Corinthians 3:16-17).  No longer did the believer have to offer sacrifices to Yahweh as a means of blood manipulation; rather, through the death of Jesus Christ, sin was atoned for and a new era of communion with Yahweh was brought forth.  The nullification of Temple worship became even more apparent with the destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70.  However, believers are still sinful beings and do not yet know the promise of ultimate fulfillment of dwelling with Jesus.  In Revelation 21-22 the realization of this is seen in the structure of the New Jerusalem.

Revelation 21:22 gives the key to the Temple in the New Jerusalem, “and I saw no Temple in the city, for its Temple is the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb” (ESV).  What an amazing picture in which communion with God is fully realized, without the need of sacrifices or the veil of the Holy of Holies. It is here in the New Jerusalem that God and humanity will dwell together as was intended in the Garden of Genesis 2.

The People of God

Lastly, the people of God are fully redeemed as well.  Since the Fall of Adam and Eve humanity has lived under the effects of the sinful nature.  In the atoning work of Jesus Christ, redemption was made possible, yet the indwelling of sin still existed.  Revelation echoes this great truth in victory songs, recalling imagery of redemption throughout human history.  Hubbard notes,

“The Lamb is worthy of praise because its shed blood ransomed `believers from all nations (5:8-9).  The language appears to compare Christ to the Paschal lamb whose blood delivered the Israelite firstborn (Exod. 12; Mark 14:12-25, par.; cf. John 1:29) and to the lamb (i.e., the Suffering Servant) whose atoning death purchases believers from eternal death.”[8]

In Revelation 21-22 redemption is fully realized as this communion occurs between humanity and God.  Revelation 21:3 gives such a vivid picture of this ultimate goal of Yahweh’s sovereign plan of redemption, “Behold the dwelling place of God is with man.  He will dwell with them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them as their God” (ESV).  What a glorious picture of the hope which all believers should long for.  Ladd notes, “This feature – the fact that God will be God to his people – is the central element of God’s covenant with his people throughout the entire course of redemptive history…Now, at last, this covenant promise finds its perfect fulfillment in the new earth of the Age to Come.”[9]  Finally, it is this hope that is the motivation for John’s benediction (Revelation 22:6-21).


[1] Grant R. Osborne, “Theodicy in the Apocalypse,” Trinity Journal 141:1 (Spring 1993), 64.

[2] G.K. Beale, New Dictionary of Biblical Theology, 356.

[3] Osborne, “Theodicy in the Apocalypse”, 69.

[4]Beale, G. K. The Book of Revelation: A Commentary on the Greek Text. (Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1999), 173.

[5] P.W.L. Walker, “Jerusalem”, in New Dictionary of Biblical Theology, ed. by T. Desmond Alexander, Brian S. Rosner, D.A. Carson, and Graeme Goldsworthy (Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 2000), 589.

[6]  R.J. McKelvey, “Temple” in New Dictionary of Biblical Theology, ed. by T. Desmond Alexander, Brian S. Rosner, D.A. Carson, and Graeme Goldsworthy (Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 2000), 807.

[7] Ibid, 808.

[8]  R.L. Hubbard, Jr., “Redemption” in New Dictionary of Biblical Theology, ed. by T. Desmond Alexander, Brian S. Rosner, D.A. Carson, and Graeme Goldsworthy (Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 2000), 720.

[9]  George Eldon Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament, (Grand Rapids: Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1974; revised edition, Grand Rapids: Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1993), 682.

Theology of suffering and victory from the book of Revelation

This article was written by my friend Scott Tiede. Scott attended Purdue University where he studied mechanical engineering. He worked as an engineer for about 10 years while serving and growing at Bethel Bible Church in Winomac, Indiana. He was called into a staff position at Bethel Bible Church in 2005, and he attended seminary at Faith Bible Seminary in Lafeyette, Indiana, earning his Masters of Divinity in 2010. Pastor Scott joined the staff at Delaware Bible Church in the summer of 2012. Pastor Scott married his wife, Tracy, in 1995 and has four children: Caleb, Keziah, Jacobi, and Elizabeth.

When it comes to the book of Revelation, there are various themes woven throughout the letter.  Of the many themes, two that are very apparent are suffering and victory.  The thesis of suffering and victory is nowhere better represented than by Christ Himself, who suffered death on the cross and now is triumphant (5:5-6).  These themes of suffering and victory present themselves in various ways throughout the book.

Suffering is used to encourage sanctification

This idea is on full display in the letter to the churches in chapters 2 and 3.  Each of the seven churches were contending with some type of trial (2:4, 10, 14-15, 20; 3:1, 10, 15).  Jesus Himself reveals that He will pour out some brand of suffering on each of the churches with the goal of repentance and restoration.  God is not one who does not fulfill His promises, but is continuously active in bringing the necessary countermeasure to sin in the lives of the faithful that will produce righteousness.  In the case of the seven churches of Revelation 2-3, those countermeasures include suffering (2:5, 16, 21-25; 3:2-3, 11, 16-18).  Bennetch states it this way, “Varied as were the trials and experiences that the saints passed through, he[1] was always in their midst, proceeding to fulfill his aim of perfecting the good work begun in each soul.”[2]  Revelation 3:19 makes it clear that the Lord rebukes and disciplines those He loves.  Suffering is used in Revelation to produce sanctification.

God pours out suffering in such a way as to demonstrate His mercy

Clearly the Creator of the universe has the power to wipe His creation away instantaneously.  In the book of Revelation, however, this is not the case.  Instead, there are three sets of plagues rolled out (seal, trumpet, and bowl), and each set of plagues ratchets up the amount of the severity of the suffering while also shortening the time span between judgments.  What is the reason for this?  Could it be that God is a merciful God and that these judgments are rolled out in such a way as to bring the greatest possible number of souls to Himself?  Thielman states it this way, “Prior to the end of all things, the steadily increasing level of suffering does not lie outside God’s control – it is both a punishment on the wicked for their evil, particularly for their persecution of God’s people, and a merciful pedagogical effort designed to extend to them every possible opportunity to repent prior to the final outpouring of God’s wrath on them.”[3]  In fact, the Greek word for repent (μετανοέω) is used 12 times in the book of Revelation, which constitutes over one-third of the total uses in the entire New Testament (34).  Indeed some of the wicked will repent during this time of suffering and will give glory to God (11:13).  The way that God releases His judgment upon the earth puts His great mercy on display.

God pours out suffering in such a way as to demonstrate His justice

If God’s mercy is on one end of the spectrum, then on the other end of the spectrum is God’s Justice.  After mercifully pouring out judgment and suffering on the earth so that all who might come to Him would repent, God’s justice is on full display in the vision of the glorious Rider on the white horse of 19:11-18 who comes to stand against the Beast, the kings of the earth, and their armies (19:19).  This mysterious Rider is none other than Christ Himself (19:11, 13 [cf. John 1:1, 14], 16).  As He comes, the evil forces who gather to make war against Him (19:19) instead find themselves captured or killed before any fighting can begin (19:20-21).  The fact that Christ can defeat His enemies without lifting a finger in battle shows His great power.  God’s justice is powerfully revealed in the fall of Babylon (chapter 18), the destruction of those who refuse to repent (20:15), the destruction of the Beast and the False Prophet (19:20), the destruction of death and Hades (20:14), and in the final destruction of Satan himself (20:10).  Strauss writes regarding the appearance of the Rider on the white horse, “These verses (19:11-21) introduce that great event anticipated for centuries and about which the Old Testament prophets wrote.  It is the golden age on earth when all creation shall be subject to its Creator and Redeemer.  But before He reigns He must subdue every enemy and opposing force.”[4]  The suffering in the book of Revelation points to God’s justice.

Suffering produces a division among people

The awful judgments poured out in the book of Revelation separate people into two different groups; those who align themselves with evil, and those who respond to God in faith.  This theme is present from the beginning when John writes, Blessed is the one who reads the words of this prophecy, and blessed are those who hear it and take to heart what is written in it, because the time is near (1:3).  Lenski states, “Revelation is a book of promise and of judgment.  The promise is intended for those who are sealed; the judgment is intended for Satan and for all who are allied with him.”[5]  The price of being on God’s side is not cheap.  Some of those allied with God had suffered death because they had maintained their testimonies (6:9).  On the other hand, those on the side of evil will experience enormous fear to the point of wishing that they could be hidden from the face of Christ (6:16).  The wicked will also experience great pain (9:4-5) to the point that they will seek death, but not find it (9:6).  Some of the wicked will die during the judgments (9:15).  Those on God’s side are to be sealed on their foreheads (7:3), while those who associate with evil receive the mark of the Beast (13:16-17).  Also, there is a contrast to the activity of each group.  While the godly are singing praises to Him (7:10, for example) and serving Him (7:15), the wicked refuse to stop worshiping idols (9:20), refuse to repent of their evil deeds (9:21), are gloating over the death of the witnesses of God (11:10), and are aligning themselves to make war against Him (19:19).  The wicked are burdened with sin, but the righteous have had their sins washed away by the blood of the Lamb (7:14).  Even in the intensity of the bowl judgments, the wicked curse the name of God and refuse to repent (16:9, 11, 21).  The end of the wicked is eternal torment (20:14), but the end of God’s people is an existence where there is no hunger, thirst, tears, scorching heat (7:16-17), or sin curse (22:3); instead there is eternal life (22:14).

Another key theological thread running through the book is that of victory.  In the end, God will be victorious over Satan and his minions.  This is apparent in at least three ways in the Revelation.

Victory is on display through Christ’s cross work

John speaks in Revelation about the fact that Jesus has achieved victory already through His death on the cross and resurrection.  John refers to Christ as the “firstborn from the dead” as well as “the One who has freed us from our sins by His blood” (1:5).  Revelation 1:18 refers to Christ as the one who has had victory over death forever.  When John is confronted by the fact that there is no one worthy to open the seals of the scroll (5:4), one of the elders tells him not to weep because Jesus is able to open the scroll (5:5).  Why is He able to do this?  The elder says that Christ can do this because he has overcome (5:5).  Before any of the judgments are manifested, Christ has already achieved the victory by His death on the cross and resurrection.  Revelation 7:14 makes it clear that people are being saved through Christ’s cross work when it says, “they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.”  It is not the judgments being doled out in the end that will provide salvation for the faithful, but only the work Christ did on the cross.  Revelation 19:11-16 presents a scene wherein Christ makes a magnificent entrance into the world as a great and victorious Warrior King.  Standing in contrast to His entrance into Jerusalem on the back of a lowly donkey to eventually be crucified is the fact that Christ now sits upon a white steed dressed in splendor, and crowned with many crowns.[6]

Victory is on display in the Church

Endurance and perseverance are the keys to victory in the book of Revelations.  As Christ suffered horribly and died, but persevered, so believers are to remain strong in the face of suffering.  Beale states it this way, “The Lamb’s followers are to recapitulate the model of his ironic victory in their own lives; by means of enduring through the tribulation they reign in the invisible kingdom of the Messiah (see 1:6, 9).”[7]  In the letters to the seven churches in chapters 2 and 3, promises are made to each church if that church will overcome (Gk. νικάω).  These promises include being able to eat from the tree of life (2:7), authority over the nations (2:26), and the right to sit with Christ on His throne (3:21).  The key to these and the other promises mentioned in Revelation 2-3 is perseverance.  Flora states it this way, “Revelation says that one overcomes by endurance and by faithfulness — not just a quick fix saying, “Lord, I believe,” but the faith which walks that out in faithfulness every day of one’s life.”[8]  In the end, the faithful will, by the power of the Holy Spirit, overcome and will inhabit the New Jerusalem (21:24-27).

Victory is already complete, but will be fully realized when Satan is defeated

As mentioned above, Christ has already achieved the victory through His death on the cross and resurrection.  However, the effects of sin and Satan on the world remain until Satan is ultimately defeated for good.  In effect, the world is still under the curse of sin.  However, John reveals that after Satan, death, and Hades are thrown into the Lake of Fire (20:10, 14) the sin curse will be lifted (22:3).  This will open the door for Christ to renew all things, and a new heaven and a new earth will be the result (21:1).  John describes this as a magnificent place that is constructed and decorated with what appears to be precious metals and stones (21:11, 18-21), a place where no outside illumination is necessary because light is sufficiently provided by the glory of God (21:23).  John reveals that this future estate will be the fully-realized victory of God over Satan and evil.

To conclude this section on suffering and victory, John Walvoord summarizes well the anticipation of man since the fall, and the joyous eternal state that is described in the end of Revelation:

With the close of the prophetic narrative, the Biblical revelation of Jesus Christ also comes to its conclusion. In the beginning of eternity, all that was anticipated in the first and second comings of Christ is fulfilled, and Christ is honored as King of kings and Lord of lords. The eternity which stretches beyond the horizon of Scriptural revelation is one of unspeakable bliss for the saints and unending joy in the presence of God. In the center of the service and worship of the saints will be Jesus Christ, “the same yesterday, today, and forever.” To this eternal destiny every believing heart turns in anticipation and joyous expectation.[9]


[1]He refers here to Christ.

[2]John H. Bennetch, “The Grace of the Lord Jesus Christ for the Seven Churches of the Apocalypse,” Bibliotheca Sacra 96 (July 1939): 364.

[3]Frank Thielman, Theology of the New Testament: A Canonical and Synthetic Approach (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2005), 626.

[4] Lehman Strauss, The Book of the Revelation (Neptune, NJ: Loizeaux Brothers, 1964), 322.

[5]R. C. H. Lenski, The Interpretation of St. John’s Revelation (Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1943), 21.

[6]David J. MacLeod, “The First “Last Things”: The Second Coming of Christ (Rev 19:11-16),” Bibliotheca Sacra 156 (April 1999): 209.

[7] G.K. Beale, “Revelation (Book)” in New Dictionary of Biblical Theology, ed. by T. Desmond Alexander, Brian S. Rosner, D.A. Carson, and Graeme Goldsworthy (Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 2000), 356.

[8]Jerry Flora, “New Testament Perspectives on Evil,” Ashland Theological Journal 24 (1992): 20.

[9]John F. Walvoord, “The Future Work of Christ Part IV: The Millennial Kingdom and the Eternal State,” Bibliotheca Sacra 123 (October 1966):299-300.

Theology of the glory of God from the book of Revelation

Many have tried to establish a theme for the Book of Revelation, but the following summary by George G. Weeber captures its theme and focus,

The Revelation of Jesus Christ, as the unveiling of our exalted, glorified, and sovereign Lord over His church and the world as the Revealer and Executor of the secret decrees of God in order to consummate His victory over the world of evil at His Second Coming and establish the royal kingdom of God.[1]

The glory of God is a theme that permeates the Book of Revelation. From chapter 1 through 22 there is a golden vein that describes and ascribes glory to God. This portion of the paper will describe the theme of God’s glory in Revelation as it relates to his holiness and incomparability.

The Glory of God Within the Literary Structure

Worship scenes play an important role in unifying the book because they are not just interludes, but part of the context. The hymn sections of Revelation usually provide commentary within the narrative visions in which they are embedded. The primary reason that the author introduced throne scenes was to serve as literary contexts for commentary on the hymns. This makes them important for the structural analysis of Revelation.[2]

Revelation is a hymnal of worship describing God’s glory as seen in His holiness and incomparability. The setting of the book of Revelation is within the throne room of God and the hymns are sung in this setting. The worship in Revelation is characterized by thanksgiving (11:17), praise (19:5), prayer (5:8), and song. Worship for God is expressed in the context of desolation and divine judgment.

The Book of Revelation has, like many letters, a prologue (1:1-8), body (1:9-22:5), and epilogue (22:6-21).[3] Within all three elements there is an overwhelmingly large emphasis given to the praise and glory of God. The author of Revelation teaches his readers a lot about how to worship God now in light of how we will worship Him in the future. Among the 22 chapters of Revelation there are 11 distinct worship episodes, which make up a sizable chuck of the book’s text.[4] The verb proskymeo (to worship) is used 24 times in Revelation compared to 59 times in all of Scripture.[5] One could say worship is what ties Revelation together.

The Glory of God is pictured within His divine characteristics

The Revelation of Jesus Christ is full of imagery and expresses John’s reverence for God. Within Revelation God is presented in all His majesty and glory. It is His glory that lights the heavens (21:23). We see God as holy, omnipotent, omniscient and eternal. There is an emphasis on His righteousness and judgment upon sin, but little about His love and mercy.[6] The character of God within Revelation is fitting to the role He plays as the Judge of mankind.

God is holy.  Those that are in the presence of God near His throne never cease to worship God day and night. They cry out to God, “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God Almighty, who was and is and is to come.” (Ἅγιος ἅγιος ἅγιος, κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ παντοκράτωρ: 4:8; cf.4:9, 11; 19:2) There is no one that is like or will ever be like our God. He is incomparable. He alone is worthy of worship because He is holy.

God is Sovereign over all things, including the judgment of man and His dealing with evil.[7] God protects His people and punishes rebellion. The picture in Revelation is of God ruling history and the fact that He will bring about history’s consummation in Christ.[8] The overwhelming picture of God is of a mighty potentate seated on His throne (4:3), a picture that is determined by the visionary nature of the book and by the need to stress the sovereignty of God over the forces of evil.[9]

God sits on His throne (τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ θρόνῳ: 4:9; 5:1, 7, 13; 6:16; 7:15; 21:5).[10] He rules and reigns over His people and their dominion with His supreme plan. He reigns on His throne as Judge and King.[11] It is God, not the evil one, who sits on the throne, and it is God who judges His enemies and blesses those who faithfully follow the Lamb of God.[12] The Book of Revelation is a letter written to encourage followers of Christ to focus their faith on the triumph of a sovereign God’s reign, which has now been disclosed through the exaltation and reign of Christ.

God is sovereign over all creation. The twenty-four elders proclaim God as the Creator of all things (4:11). He creates and He sustains (cf. 10:6; 14:7). The culmination of absolute sovereignty is seen in God’s creation of the new heavens and earth (21:1-22:5). At that time, He destroys the old earth tainted by sin and combines earth and heaven “making all things new” (21:5). The Book of Revelation conveys a sense of sovereignty that no other New Testament book approaches.[13]

God is Eternal as related to His Sovereignty. God is described as One who will be forever and ever. He is “the One who is and who was and who is to come” (ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος: 1:4, 8; 4:8-10; 11:17; 16:5). God is in control of the present in the same way He was in control of the past and will be in control of the future.[14] With this promise of His eternal control is the promise of His coming and judgment. God does not have a beginning or end, for He is described as “the First and Last” (ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος: 1:17; 22:13). He not only controls the past and the future, but everything in between, for He is “the Alpha and Omega” (Ἐγώ εἰμι τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ: 1:8, 17;21:6, 13).

God is Omnipotent as related to His Sovereignty. God is a mighty God.[15] He is the divine warrior and has all the power to do His will. Whatever evil is done in His sight by the evil powers of this world, God has more power still. God is stronger than the kings of earth. He will overcome and be the victor over evil. He will judge in His power and glory (18:8). God is “Almighty” (ὁ παντοκράτωρ: 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 19:6; 21:22), and all heaven ascribes power and might to Him (7:12; 12:10).

The Glory of God Seen Within His Son Jesus Christ

From the beginning of the text John greet his readers “from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead and the ruler of the kings of the earth.” (1:5) The first vision of John in Revelation is Jesus in all His glory (1:12-20).

Jesus is referred to by John with many distinct divine names: the “I AM” (1:8, 17; 2:23; 21:6; 22:13, 16), Son of God (2:18), ruler of God’s creation (3:14), Word of God (19:13; cf. John 1:1-14 & 1 John 1:1-4), and the Lamb of God (13:11; cf. John 1:29, 36; 21:15) . These characteristics and more are vivid throughout the Revelation of Jesus Christ.

The Lamb of God (ἀρνίον) is a constant symbol for Christ in Revelation as the victor over the forces of evil and the Church as the body of Christ, which shares this victory with Him (17:14).[16] He has opened up the way for His people to have a glorious destiny. He is the Lamb worshiped by all heaven (5:6) and worthy to open the seven seals (6:1, 3ff). The greatness and glory of the Lamb is indicated in the way He is joined with God (cf. 7:9; 14:4; 22:1-3).[17] He is equated with God. Jesus is the supreme One and His glory makes His saving work possible.

There is a hint to the humanity of Christ as He is referenced to being from the tribe of Judah and the house of David. Greater emphasis, however, is placed on His deity. Revelation leaves us no doubt that Jesus Christ is the God of all. He is triumphant over death and regarded as the eternal One of infinite power and majesty who is worthy of all honor and adoration.[18] He is the King of kings and Lord of lords, slays the wicked, delivers the righteous, and reigns over the earth. John cannot help but fall before Him and worship. At the conclusion of two visions, he falls at the feet of the angel to worship, and the angel responds, “You must not do that! I am a fellow servant with you and your brothers who hold to the testimony of Jesus. Worship God.” (19:10; 22:9)[19]

The Book of Revelation is a cataclysmic reminder that through Christ life is stronger than death and eventually the kingdom of this world will be the kingdom of our Lord and His Messiah (1:6; 5:10).[20] He will reign forever and ever (11:15). There is no one like Jesus Christ. Jesus is supreme.

In conclusion, the Book of Revelation has a heavy emphasis on the glory of God. God’s glory is seen in the literary structure of the book, within His characteristics, and in the person and work of Jesus Christ. If one wants to grow in his or her understanding of God’s glory, the Revelation of Jesus Christ is a great place to start. God is enthroned in heaven and is working out His purposes on earth. Revelation calls us to respond with awe, godly fear, praise, faith, and obedience.[21] One day we will ourselves cry to the Lord, “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God Almighty, who was and is and is to come!”


[1]George G. Weeber, The Consummation of History: A Study of the Book of Revelation, (s.l: s.n., 1978,) 27.

[2] David E. Aune, Word Biblical Commentary: Volume 22. (Word Books: Dallas, TX. 1997), xcviii.

[3]Dennis A. Johnson, Triumph of the Lamb: A Commentary of Revelation, (Phillipsburg, NJ: P & R Publishing Co., 2001), 26-28.

[4]1:12-20; 4:1-5:14; 7:9-17; 8:3-5; 11:16-19; 12:10-12; 14:1-7; 15:2-8; 16:5-7; 19:1-10; 20:4-6; 21:1-22:5

[5]Leon Morris, New Testament Theology, (Grand Rapids: Academie Books, 1986), 296.

[6]John F. Walvoord, The Revelation of Jesus Christ, (Chicago: Moody Press, 1966), 10.

[7]Note there is a great conflict between good and evil (Ch.12-19; and reiterated in 20:1-10).

[8]Vern S. Poythress, The Returning King: A Guide to the Book of Revelation, (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing Co, 2000), 40.

[9] I. Howard Marshall, New Testament Theology, (Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 2004), 573.

[10] There are also variations of this phrase cf. 4:2, 3; 7:10; 19:4; 20:11.

[11] His sovereignty is seen in His judgment through the 7 Seals, 7 Trumpets and 7 Bowls.

[12] Robert W. Wall, Revelation: New International Biblical Commentary, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991), 39.

[13]D.A. Carson & Douglas J. Moo. An Introduction to the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2005), 721.

[14] Grant Osborne. Baker Evangelical Commentary of The New Testament: Revelation, (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2002), 32.

[15] The sovereign might of God is seen in the incredible use of εδοθη, a divine passive that points to Gods control of the events (6:2, 4, 8, 11; 7:2; 8:2, 3; 9:1; 3, 5; 11:1, 2; 12:14; 13:5, 7, 14; 13:5, 7, 14, 15; 16:8). Osborne, 32.

[16]Weeber, 27.

[17]Morris, 293.

[18]Walvoord, 27.

[19] J. Ramsey Michaels in His commentary suggests that the parallels in the two visions are intended to form a contrasting pair, each centering on a city personified as a woman—Babylon and Jerusalem, prostitute and bride. Interpreting the Book of Revelation: Guides to New Testament Exegesis, (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1992), 65-66.

[20]Stephen F. Smalley, The Revelation to John (Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 2005), 19.

[21]Poythress, 40.

How to interpret the Book of Revelation?

The Book of Revelation can be a sticky book to interpret. George Weeber states, “No book in the New Testament—for that matter, in the whole Bible—has so many confusing and radically different interpretations as Revelation.”[1] The prophecies, visions, and unique illusions can lead to many different interpretations.

Scholars and theologians have differed on how to approach Revelation. There are four main views taken to the interpretation of Revelation: preterist approach, historicist approach, idealist approach, and the futurist approach.[2]

The preterist approach

The preterist approach interprets Revelation not as future prophecy, but as a historical collection of events from the 1st Century Roman Empire. Since, Revelation is treated as history,  John is describing people, countries and events of his day. For example, the first beast in Revelation 13 is often interpreted as the Emperor Nero and the second beast as the Emperor Domitian.[3] This view openly ignores Revelation’s own claim to be a prophecy (cf. 1:3; 22:7, 10, 18-19), nor can it account for the Return of Christ (cf. 19:1ff).[4] This preterist approach is common today and is also known as the contemporary approach.[5]

The historicist approach

The view historicist approach interprets Revelation as catalog of church history (or human history) from the days of the Apostles to the present time. This view finds its roots in the Middle Ages and with the Reformers who often characterized the beast in Revelation to the Papacy.[6] The historicist approach  often uses the book of Revelation to describe various historical seasons of persecution or trials in the early church and human history. This approach is subjective and has an allegorical bent on Revelation in order to place the events of prophecy fit into the events of church history. It is a view that no longer holds much ground in the biblical community.

The idealist approach

The idealist approach interprets Revelation not as history or prophecy, but as a symbolic battle between God and Satan and the forces of good and evil.[7] This idealist approaches Revelation as disconnected from reality, prophecy and/or historical events. It views Revelation simply as a book written to encourage suffering saints in the knowledge that God will someday conquer all evil and make things right. Revelation is reduced to a book of myths that teach spiritual truth and “great principles”.[8]

The futurist approach

The futurist approach interprets Revelation chapters 4-22 as a prophetic account of actual future events that are yet to happen (i.e. last days).[9] This interpretation has been the dominant and preferred view among biblical scholars and average readers.[10] This view is a natural result of a straightforward reading of Revelation. In other words, a literary historical grammatical contextual interpretation of Revelation breeds a futurist approach to interpretation.

Each approach may have a bit of truth in them or may raise more questions and doubts related to interpretation, but overall the first three approaches leave a lot of the interpretation of Revelation up to human subjectivity and often lead to allegorization or spiritualization. The safest approach that will really get to the root meaning of John’s prophecy is the futurist approach. The futurist approach is the approach that comes close to treating the interpretation of the Book of Revelation like other books of Scripture. The book of Revelation is an integral part of the Word of God, and we will not be able to explain it’s meaning unless we have the other books of the Bible.[11] Above all, the book of Revelation is to be shared (22:10), for there is a sense of urgency to John’s writing because “the end is near” and Christ is soon returning (22:7, 12, 20).


[1] George G. Weeber. The Consummation of History: A Study of the Book of Revelation. Grace Theological Seminary, Winona Lake, IN. 21.

[2] Merrill Tenney. Interpreting Revelation. Eerdmans Publishing, Grand Rapids MI. 1957. 135-146.

[3] Weeber, 21.

[4] C. Marvin Pate. Four Views on the Book of Revelation. Zondervan Publishers, Grand Rapids, MI. 1998. 17.

[5] D.A. Carson. An Introduction to the New Testament. Zondervan Publishing, Grand Rapids, MI. 2005. 719.

[6] Carson, 720.

[7] Pate, 18.

[8] Willaim Milligan. The Revelation of St. John, 2nd Edition. Macmillian, London, UK. 1887. 153.

[9] John MacArthur. Because the Time is Near. Moody Publishers, Chicago. 2007. 14.

[10] Pate, 18.

[11] Weeber, 26.

How to study the Book of Revelation?

I’ve just begun a study of the Book of Revelation. I am excited to study this most interesting book. Before studying a new book of the Bible I like to remind myself of some helpful tidbits when studying the Bible.

Pray for the Holy Spirit’s guidance.

Prayer is most important. When studying the Bible–including Revelation–you should humbly depend on God to give you wisdom and understanding. It is wise to pray before, during, and after your study, asking God to direct you. It’s a responsibility the Holy Spirit enjoys and takes seriously, “He will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on His own; He will speak only what He hears, and He will tell you what is yet to come” (John 16:13). How wonderful it is to have the interpreter dwelling within you as you read.

Understand the big idea of the book of Revelation.

Determining the meaning of Scripture is a very most important task. God says you must read and study the Bible with care (2 Timothy 2:15). When it comes studying the Book of Revelation it is critical to study verses in their context. Let the text speak for itself. Often, weird interpretations of Revelation are birthed by someone taking one verse out of its context. This is dangerous and a sign of very bad interpretation skills.

When determining the meaning of an entire book of the Bible it is good to have read through the entire book. It is too simple to say that the book of Revelation is about the future, that’s not the main purpose of the book. The main purpose of the book of Revelation is to reveal Jesus Christ. The book begins by stating “The Revelation of Jesus Christ.” To properly study the book of Revelation you must see Jesus as the main character.

Understand the flow of the book of Revelation.

Revelation is divided up into three main veins. Revelation 1:19 describes the divisions as:

(1) Past: “the things which you have seen.”
(2) Present: “the things which are.”
(3) Future: “the things which shall be hereafter.”

Understanding these veins will help you follow the flow of the book of Revelation.

Understand the difference between figurative and literal language.

The Book of Revelation is graphic, but it is not a graphic novel. You do not have to be a literary scholar to know the difference between figurative and literal language. The apostle John describes future things that did not exist when he was writing the book of Revelation. As a result, he described what he saw in terms that were used in his day. When John uses terms such as “like” or “as” he is using symbolic language to to describe what he witnessed. This is common with any prophetic literature. Be careful not to over interpret figurative language, but embrace it’s ambiguity and mystery.

Take scrupulous notes.

You are bound to stubble upon passages in Revelation that will make you scratch your head in wonder or awe. Anything you read that is confusing or meaningful jot it down in a journal. I love to use type notes on my computer and organize them by Scripture reference or theme. It is fascinating to look over previous notes I took and compare them to newer passages I study.

Expect to be blessed.

Revelation 1:3 says, “Blessed are they that read, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep the things that are written therein.” As you study the book of Revelation, and marvel at Jesus Christ and obey what you learn from it, you can expect to be blessed. Revelation is one of the most fascinating books of the Bible. It will certainly stir you to worship Jesus Christ in a powerful and moving way.

the God who reveals (general & special revelation)

I am fan of games. My wife and I enjoy playing strategy games together and with friends. I suppose my love for games was bred into me from a young age. I got my first Nintendo when I was about 12 years old. But I think my love for games even goes back earlier to tag on the elementary school “playground” or peek-a-boo with my parents as a toe-headed toddler. Peek-a-boo is a fun game. My 19-month old daughter loves to play by covering her little eyes with her little hands.

Peek-a-boo is the first step towards playing Hide-and-seek. It is interesting that Hide-and-seek is a game that we love to play with our children, but God never plays with us. He is always with us and He has revealed Himself plainly to mankind. You can summarize the ways God reveals Himself to man in two ways: general revelation and special revelation. General revelation refers to the general truths that can be known about God through nature. Special revelation refers to the more specific truths that can be known about God through the supernatural.

The God who reveals Himself through nature (general revelation)

First, God is seen in creation. God’s existence and power can be seen throughout the vastness of the universe, in the order of the animal kingdom, in the rules of gravity or thermal dynamics, and in the details or structures of plants and cells. The wonder of creation declares it must be made and just did not happen by mere chance, “The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of His hands. Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they display knowledge. There is no speech or language where their voice is not heard. Their voice goes out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world.” (Psalm 19:1-4)

Romans 1:20 says, “For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—His eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse.” God’s eternal power and divine nature are “clearly seen” and “understood” from what He has made, and there is no excuse for denying these facts. This is was I wrote about a few weeks ago, when I was on a hike with my family through the Muir Woods just north of San Francisco.

Second, God is seen in humanity. He is not only seen in your biological makeup, but also your psychological[1] makeup too. God has placed within every man a moral compass that that points us True North, a radar system that warns us of evil and harm, and a homing beacon that deep down gravitates us towards God (Jeremiah 31:33). How is it that sinful men still have a bearing of what is right and wrong? Did that just didn’t happen? No, it is imbedded within your DNA as a gift from God. It is divine proof that your Maker has marked you with His image (Genesis 1:28).

God reveals Himself through nature. He has put redemptive themes all throughout the universe, planet earth, and humanity, which point the creation back to its Creator. You do not have to look far or wide to find it, but most people choose to ignore it or redefine it.

The God who reveals Himself through supernatural (special revelation)

God doesn’t just reveal Himself through nature, but also through supernatural means. Special revelation is when God reveals Himself miraculously. He revealed Himself through physical appearances (Genesis 3:8, 18:1; Exodus 3:1-4, 34:5-7), dreams (Genesis 28:12, 37:5; 1 Kings 3:5; Daniel 2) , visions (Genesis 15:1; Ezekiel 8:3-4; Daniel 7; 2 Corinthians 12:1-7), the written Word of God, and most importantly—Jesus Christ.

One of the primary means God reveals Himself supernaturally to man is through the writing of His Word—the Bible. Think about it, God wrote a book. He did have to, but God decided to reveal everything that you need to know about Him, what He expects from you, and what He has done for you in the Bible. He spoke in a way that is clearly understood. He miraculously guided the original authors of Scripture to accurately record His redemptive message to mankind, but He still used their own styles and personalities. The Word of God is inspired, profitable, and sufficient (2 Timothy 3:16-17). The Word of God is living and active (Hebrews 4:12).

Where special revelation is seen in its ultimate form is in the Person of Jesus Christ. God became a human being (John 1:1, 14). He came as the Word within human skin, “In the past God spoke to our forefathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways, but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son … The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of his being.” (Hebrews 1:1-3) God became a human being, in the Person of Jesus Christ, to become the atoning sacrifice for your sin on the cross (Philippians 2:6-8). Human sin needed a perfect human substitute for His sin, which is Jesus. He is the ultimate “special revelation” from God.

Why is general and special revelation so important?

First, God makes Himself known so that you can know Him. God wants to be known. He is not silent. He has given you a glimpse of His character, His purposes and plans, and has given you many avenues to know Him. Simply read the Bible and look to Jesus and you will get to know an amazing God.

Second, not only does God reveal Himself to you, but He also reveals who you are too. He makes Himself known because He knows that you need Him. He is Creator and you are His creation. He is perfect and you are imperfect due to sin (Romans 1-9). He is Savior and you need redeemed. He takes the initiative to reveal Himself to you so that you would respond and join in a relationship with Him.

God does not play peek-a-boo. He does not want you to be left in the dark as to who He is and His purposes for humanity. Instead He has revealed Himself to all people, at all times, and in all places that proves that God exists and that He is intelligent, powerful, and transcendent. You can know Him and have a relationship with Him today.


[1] And I mean the true sense of the word psychological, which means the study of the soul.